|Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms and management strategies.
|Year of Publication
|Gao, Y, Lei, Z, Reitz, SR
|Pest Manag Sci
|Animals, Insecticide Resistance, Insecticides, Thysanoptera
Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This highly invasive pest has a great propensity for developing insecticide resistance because of its biological attributes, and cases of resistance to most classes of insecticides used for its management have been detected. To combat insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, several insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs have been developed around the world, and these are discussed. Successful programs rely on non-insecticidal tactics, such as biological and cultural controls and host plant resistance, to reduce population pressures, rotations among insecticides of different mode of action classes to conserve insecticide efficacy, resistance monitoring, sampling to determine the need for insecticide applications and education to assure proper implementation. More judicious insecticide use is possible with the development of well-founded economic thresholds for more cropping systems. While growers will continue to rely on insecticides as part of western-flower-thrips- and thrips-transmitted virus management, more effective management of these pests will be achieved by considering their management in the context of overall integrated pest management, with IRM being a key component of those comprehensive programs.
|Pest Manag. Sci.